There is nothing more difficult to take in hand. more perilous to conduct. or more uncertain in its success. than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions. and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new. Machiavelli. The Prince When this book was first written in 1959 I was myself a practising operational research worker in charge of a small group at the Glacier Metal Company, concerned with using Operational Research philosophy and techniques to help solve some of the managerial problems inside the company. About that time Operational Research was beginning to attract attention in industrial circles. Many quite large research groups were being founded. The advertisement columns of the Sunday press and certain daily newspapers were full of advertisements for Operational Research practitioners, at then quite attractive salaries.